Saturday, 12 April 2014

Mastering Genealogical Proof Study Group 2 Chapter 5 Homework


Reference:
Thomas W. Jones, Mastering Genealogical Proof (Arlington, Virginia: National Genealogical Society, 2013), 6. 
[Book available from the publisher at 

Chapter 5: Genealogical Proof Standard Element 3: Analysis and Correlation




    1. The source is a derivative.
    2. The informant is believed to be Ida May (née Tucker) (McLain) Leach.
    3. The information regarding the birth date is primary information.
    4. The source provides direct evidence that he was born on February 4th 1876.
    5. This source provides indirect evidence for a divorce prior to March 29th 1878.
    6. This source was created as a family record.
    7. This source was likely created after 29th September 1893 the date of the last entry more than 23 years after the birth.  It appeared to have been created at a single point in time which must have been after the last event recorded.
    8. There are blotches on the page and the pages were loose indicating the record keeper could have shown more care when creating the record but the document is generally legible.
    9. There is no way of verifying who wrote the entry and any challenge to what is recorded would have to be verified with other records in order to challenge or correct any erroneous information. This can only be done if reliable official records exist where the informant is unlikely to have lied.
    10. The Family Record has nothing which could protect it from bias or fraud and from the copy it is difficult to confirm that the source has not been tampered with although the citation would indicate that there had been no tampering .
    11. The informant was a witness but the record was made at a time distant from many of the events so the memory of these distant events may been impaired.
    12. Although the informant was a credible witness to all the recorded events we do not know enough of the background with this one document to consider whether she had reasons not to record them accurately. Her memory of the earlier events could be such as to invalidate the record, additional records for birth and marriage dates, independently recorded, would help verify what this document states, and even if not all the events can be verified, confirming any that can could strengthen the case for the others being correct.
2. 
This question requires tabulation of information from 2 census records. The images in the book do not show all the information discussed in the answer as they have been cropped from the original. Therefore I shall leave this question and discuss the correlation of census results in a later post on this blog.
3. 
For both this question on the next we are looking at ways in which we can correlate information items so that we can build our conclusion and identify any conflicts. I wish to look at these in relation to research I would be doing in the UK and think that yet again this would be better dealt with in a separate post.

I hope to get the other blog post completed before we discuss the written conclusion after Easter as I want to highlight some differences in the UK which readers in the US or elsewhere may not have encountered.

Thursday, 10 April 2014

Florence Ann Compton was orphaned who were her parents?




Background

Family history is all about establishing relationships and we use a selection of records to "prove" the members of a family.
In this post I want to discuss some documents I have used to answer the following question.
Who were the parents of my grandmother Florence Ann Compton.

Documents

In order to meet the challenge of 3-2-1 CITE I will only discuss 3 documents even though there are others in my collection that may further support my proof argument.



What the documents say about the family relationship


  1. The census document has the head of the household at 6 King Street, Warminster as Edmond or Edward Jno Compton and his wife is Thurza Ann. The children are listed as Walter Jno 9, Sidney Herbert 7, Stanley James 5, Ernest Roy 3 and Florence Ann 1 mo.
  2. The birth certificate shows the birth on 17th February 1901 of Florence Ann Compton daughter of Edmund John and Thirza Ann Compton formerly Robbins at 6 King Street, Warminster.
  3. The baptism at Christ Church Warminster on May 16th of Florence Annie daughter of Edmund John and Thirza Ann Compton, 7 King Street.




The Evidence 

The census record indicates that Florence Ann Compton was born in February or March 1901 as the 1901 census was taken on 31st March 1901. The names of her parents differ only slightly in terms of spelling to those given on the birth certificate and in the parish magazine. The census and birth registration would have been recorded on consecutive days by different officials. The baptism was recorded within 2 months of the other records and all three are contemporary with the birth. In the case of the census and the birth the informant may have been the same person, the father and head of the household. The informant for the baptism may have been one of the church officials either clergy or lay member or taken from the baptismal register.
The information on the birth certificate and census regarding the residence is in agreement and the parish magazine only differs by number, which is possibly due to confusion regarding numbering or incorrectly recorded in a baptismal register. (I have been to the street and know that I was unable to find number 6.)

Conclusion

Florence Ann Compton was the daughter of Edmund John Compton and Thirza Ann Compton (nee Robbins).
The actual baptism register would be a more reliable source than the parish magazine and obtaining a copy would further support this proof.

Citations

  1. 1901 census of England, Wiltshire, Warminster, Christchurch parish, folio 37 recto, p.9, household 53, Edmond Compton; digital image, Find My Past (http://new.findmypast.co.uk/ : accessed 5th April 2014) ; citing PRO RG13 /1943
  2. Register of Births Warminster Registration District, Certified Copy of Entry 184, 1901, issued 21st October 1907, digital image: [created 2nd October 2003]
  3. Parish magazines for Warminster, Wiltshire, June 1901, page 2, Baptism May 16th Florence Annie Compton, digital image, (http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~pbtyc/Warminster_Par_Mag/1901_06/02.html : accessed 10th April 2014); 

Saturday, 29 March 2014

Mastering Genealogical Proof Study Group 2 Chapter 4 Homework

Reference:
Thomas W. Jones, Mastering Genealogical Proof (Arlington, Virginia: National Genealogical Society, 2013), 6. 

[Book available from the publisher at 

Chapter 4: Genealogical Proof Standard Element 2: Source Citations

As with previous homework I have given this a slant from a UK researcher's perspective.

This is an area that I struggle with despite understanding the theory.
I think part of the problem is a lack of credible examples of recognized sources. Evidence Explained (1) barely touches on the sources that I have regularly used in my research and when it does I do not find the citations helpful, particularly as they refer to only one repository for information which may exist in more than one place.

Births, Deaths and Marriages in England and Wales from 1st July 1837 were recorded as Civil Registration events at a local level by registrars, or in the case of marriages performed in Churches or other places permitted to perform such ceremonies they were recorded by the celebrant. In all cases at least 2 registers were kept. Churches keep a record of marriages and send a copy to the registrar and the registrar sends copies of his register to the General Register Office. This makes for a high possibility of errors in one or more entry. It seems unreasonable, given the expense, to get copies of all entries, and even then unless they are a facsimile they are also open to error, so most researchers will gather a selection of certificates from originals to derivative copies made by a clerk copying an entry from a register.

My last statement makes it clear that certificates used extensively by researchers in England and Wales will not have a common source even though the information contained within should be identical. The importance of quoting the source correctly is more significant when considering the analysis of the evidence and the reliability of the source.

I have attempted to show examples in the shared spreadsheet for some of the commonly used sources, I hope to add more later, and would welcome any comments. I am unsure as to whether shortening some of the information would be acceptable but I have also included a link to a page I found on the website of The National Archives which I hope others will find useful.




  1. Elizabeth Shown Mills, CG, Evidence Explained:Citing History Sources from Artifacts to Cyberspace, 2nd Edition (Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Co., 2007)

Friday, 21 March 2014

Mastering Genealogical Proof Study Group 2 Chapter 3 Homework

Reference:
Thomas W. Jones, Mastering Genealogical Proof (Arlington, Virginia: National Genealogical Society, 2013), 6. 

[Book available from the publisher at 
Chapter 3: Genealogical Proof Standard Element 1 Thorough Research



Here is my take on chapter 3 which I shall look at from the angle of someone who has only researched in England and Wales.

To meet the requirement of the Genealogical Proof Standard for thorough research you must understand your area of research. This requires a knowledge of a number of things.

  1. The geography of the area, particularly at the time period when your family lived in the area.
  2. The records available for the area.
  3. The law as it affected the area.
In order that you can understand these you require a knowledge of where you can find what you need.
The major genealogy websites such as Ancestry, Find My Past and Family Search all have aids to finding what you need and the book we are using provides other pointers for research in the United States, but the links are not necessarily applicable to other parts of the world.

The importance of original records cannot be stressed enough and whenever possible derivatives should be replaced by originals. If the originals no longer exist then it is important to obtain the best independent records available and as such we need to understand the reliability of the records we use.

Maps can be a great resource to help us understand the movement of our families and any changes to the jurisdictions. Changes may be due to changes in the law and how the official records are kept.
We still find beginners asking about certificates, for an event before civil registration started in 1837, in England and Wales. Even after this date not everything was recorded, especially in the early years.
Understanding what can be found in the records is not something that can be learnt overnight and it is important to understand that the records can tell a conflicting story which means that your conclusion could be overturned at any time by new findings.

We all need to be open to possibility that our research may not have been as thorough as we would have wished, this is often down to the expense related to the research in both time and money.

Don't be afraid to make a conclusion based on what you have found, but be prepared to have it overturned if someone comes up with another piece of evidence, that conflicts and is more reliable. If you have the resources to do further research to strengthen or refute your conclusion, it is imperative that you do so, as none of us want to trace the wrong ancestors.

The following links might be of use if you are researching in the UK it is not a comprehensive list and I am happy to add any that may add things that I may have missed.




Saturday, 8 March 2014

Mastering Genealogical Proof Study Group 2 Chapter 2 Homework

Reference:
Thomas W. Jones, Mastering Genealogical Proof (Arlington, Virginia: National Genealogical Society, 2013), 6. [Book available from the publisher at
http://www.ngsgenealogy.org/cs/mastering_genealogical_proof ]
 
Chapter 2: Concepts Fundamental to the GPS


Assignment

As a good proportion of the exercises for Chapter 2 would involve quoting sections of the book I will discuss my understanding of the chapter and provide examples from my own research which help to illustrate the points raised.

The first section deals with the primary objective the research question. This may be considered to be the most important stage before any research is undertaken.

Planned questions should be focused, on an individual. Any already documented evidence should be reviewed so that the specific information needed to answer the question can be targeted appropriately.

Most questions look at relationships.
I have an Ann Taylor who married Peregrine Rosling in Billingborough, Lincolnshire, England 13 May 1819 (1) and she died 16 Oct 1878 in Swinstead, Lincolnshire, England aged 79 years (2) her year and place of birth from the census records is 1796 - 1801 Billingborough, Lincolnshire, England (3,4,5,6).
My question is who were her parents?

I have Nathaniel Gadsby who married Elizabeth Bemrose in Ruskington, Lincolnshire, England 25 May 1815 (7) and he was buried 2 Jan 1856 in Castle Bytham, Lincolnshire, England age 69 years (8) his year and place of birth from the census records is 1781 - 1786 Aserby, Lincolnshire, England (9,10)
My question is who were his parents and where was he born? 
There is more than 1 place in Lincolnshire that could be a contender for Aserby you need to take in to consideration the local pronunciation. 

Identity questions such as What was the maiden name of Mary Eley?  the wife of Edward Eley and mother of Louisa Richards who had been married to Thomas Richards in Jersey but had then discovered after the birth of their daughter that he was already married. She was born in Millbrook, County of Southampton and married Edward Eley in Titchfield, County of Southampton.(11)

Activity questions such as When and where did Thomas Richards who bigamously married Mary and fathered a child Louisa who was a private in his majesty's 76th Regt of foot (11) serve in the aforementioned regiment?
Finding a record of his service could also provide clues to his identity.

In the sources I have used to discover the information I have about these individuals I have both original records such as the settlement examination and derivatives such as the transcription by the Lincolnshire Family History Society. I have transcribed the information in the settlement examination and that transcription is a derivative record.
There are various types of information in the settlement examination and to make it easier to describe I have included a copy of the transcription for Page 76 below.

76
Town and County
of                     The Examination of  Mary Eley
 Southampton             now Residing in the Parish of Saint Michael
            of  the said Parish of  Saint Michael                                      
Wife of Edward Eley ˆin the said Town and County, Labourer
           taken on Oath, this 10th Day of July
        1827 before us two of his Majesty’s Justices of
the Peace in and for the said Town and County,
touching the place of the legal Settlement of  her
Daughter Louisa Richards of the said Parish of Saint Michael, Singlewoman
The said Examinant saith, That she was born at the Parish of Millbrook
In the county of Southampton as she hath heard and believes where her Parents
Then resided but whose place of Settlement was the Parish of Titchfield in
The said County of Southampton as she hath also been informed and believes
That her father died in the Poor House at the said Parish of Titchfield and
That her mother is now living at and receiving two shillings weekly from the
Said Parish of Titchfield That this examinant was never apprenticed nor ever
Served as a yearly servant for one whole year That upwards of nineteen years ago she
Went to Jersey and was married to Thomas Richards a private in his majesty’s 76th Regt of foot then on duty in the said island and remained there some months after her
Marriage when the Regiment was removed to Colchester in the County of Essex and
From thence to Black Heath camp that her said daughter Louisa was born at
Colchester in the said county of Essex but in what parish this examinant
Does not know and this Examinant further saith, that the said Thomas
Richards to whom she was so married as aforesaid was a married man at the
Time he married this Examinant and that while the Regiment lay at Black
Heath camp his wife and three children came there to him which when this
Examinant knew as she saw them there and was informed by a man in the
Same Regiment that it was his the said Thomas Richard’s wife and that he
Knew her to be such the said Examinant left the said Thomas
Richards and came with her said daughter to her parents who then resided in
Hamble in the said county of Southampton that this Examinant then
Worked at various places and about 13 years ago she was married to her
Present husband at Titchfield church that some time after her second
Marriage the said Thomas Richards came to see this Examinant but she
Refused to see him and since that time she has never seen or heard of
Him
Sworn before us
John Jolliffe                            The Mark  X of
Mayor                                      Mary Eley
Richard Eldridge                    Orders made (out same day to) Augst 14th
                                                1827 to Titcfield Hants


( ) crossed out
The information about her birth and her parents is going to be secondary or indeterminable and the information about her experience will be primary. Some of the information regarding the wife and children of Thomas Richards will be of indeterminable origin since it is unknown as to how the man in the same regiment knew that she was the wife (was he at the wedding).
I have books about people living in the areas where my family lived that have made mention of relatives. I have not made use of these for anything other than providing suggestions. However if I was unable to find original records these authored works could be invaluable in reconstructing the family. One family said to have 22 members was much easier to distinguish once I was aware of this fact.
Many of the sources we commonly use provide direct evidence to answer our research questions.
Negative and indirect evidence may be more difficult to determine for example one of my ancestors appears to be missing from the 1881 Census for England and Wales, I know from a copy of a letter that he was at some point a soldier and he is not listed with this occupation on any of the other censuses. It may not be unreasonable to consider that he was possibly missing from the census because he was not in the country and was serving as a soldier at this time. I have since discovered his military record and he attested in 1887 under his second forename which appears to have been the name he used for many years. It lists his address which I recognize as being his mother's home and gives a further clue as to where he may be living in 1881. I feel I may need to make better use of timelines if I am to fully understand and use indirect and negative evidence in determining proof statements.

The distinctions we use for sources and information help us to assess whether we have answered our question using the best available evidence.

By understanding why a source was created and how it was created or what created it and by whom and when and where, in other words the 5 W’s, we can strengthen the evidence to answer our research questions.

It is not enough to find a source of information we need to look at exactly what it tells us that is pertinent to our research and whether we need further information from another source before we have the evidence needed for genealogical proof.

Evidence is entirely dependant on the research question which is why it is important to clearly define our goals as questions before we start our research process.






  1.  "England Marriages, 1538–1973 ," index, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org/pal:/MM9.1.1/NX7F-9JQ : accessed 08 Mar 2014), Peregrine Rosling and Ann Taylor, 1819.
  2. Source: [S259] Death Certificate Rosling Ann Data Entry Date: 18 October 1878 Certainty Assessment: Primary evidence
  3. Source: [S1551] Census 1841 Class HO107 Piece 622 Book 30 ED 3 Folio 9 Page 11 Peregrine Rosling Swinstead,Lincolnshire,England
    Where Within Source: Class HO107/622/30/3/9/11 Data Entry Date: 6 June 1841 Certainty Assessment: Secondary evidence
  4. Source: [S1561] Census 1851 Class HO107 Piece 2095 Folio 91 Page 12 Schedule 36 Peregrine Rosling Swinstead,Lincolnshire,England Where Within Source: Class HO107/2095/91/12/36 Data Entry Date: 30 March 1851 Certainty Assessment: Secondary evidence
  5. Source: [S1577] Census 1861 Class RG9 Piece 2315 Folio 30 Page 11 Schedule 42 & 43 Peregrine Rosling Swinstead,Lincolnshire,England Where Within Source: Class RG9/2315/30/11/42 & 43 Data Entry Date: 7 April 1861 Certainty Assessment: Secondary evidence
  6. Source: [S1638] Census 1871 Class RG10 Piece 3311 Folio 26 Page 4 Schedule 18 Edward Rosling Swinstead,Lincolnshire,England
    Where Within Source: Class RG10 Piece 3311 Folio 26 Page 4 Schedule 18
    Data
    Entry Date: 2 April 1871
    Certainty Assessment: Secondary evidence
  7. Transcription from Lincolnshire Family History Society confirmed by viewing online images at Find My Past  http://www.findmypast.co.uk/
  8. "England Deaths and Burials, 1538-1991," index, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org/pal:/MM9.1.1/JC73-R5Q : accessed 08 Mar 2014), Nathaniel Gadsby
  9. "England and Wales Census, 1841," index, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org/pal:/MM9.1.1/MQ1G-SYP : accessed 08 Mar 2014), Nathaniel Gadsby, 1841.
  10. "England and Wales Census, 1851," index, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org/pal:/MM9.1.1/SGNS-K9G : accessed 08 Mar 2014), Nathaniel Gadesby, 1851.
  11. Registers of examination as to Settlement 1711-1901 Southampton City Archives Service Settlement Examination for Louisa Richards Single woman St Michael Parish 10th July 1827 Pages 72,76 and 79 Digital images






 




Monday, 24 February 2014

Mastering Genealogical Proof Study Group 2 Chapter 1 Homework



Reference:
Thomas W. Jones, Mastering Genealogical Proof (Arlington, Virginia: National Genealogical Society, 2013), 6. [Book available from the publisher at
http://www.ngsgenealogy.org/cs/mastering_genealogical_proof ]
 
Chapter 1: Genealogy’s Standard of Proof
Assignment

Question 1. 
The dictionary definition of genealogy is a line of descent traced continuously from an ancestor (1).
This translates in laymen’s terms to the study of kinship and pedigree, which is conducted by using oral traditions, historical records, genetic analysis, and other records.
Many genealogists can also be called family historians because they go further than defining the relationship and use the records they find to build a fuller picture of the families they discover and how they lived in their place and time.


Question 2. 

   A search needs to have been done of sufficient records that a conclusion can be drawn; the number of records will depend on the reliability of the records that have been found. To draw a conclusion you must be reasonably certain that you have not overlooked a source that any competent researcher would have used.

The sources that are used need to be completely and accurately recorded in such a manner as to make them retrievable.

The information discovered in the research process must be analysed to ensure that it refers to the same person or persons, in the same place and at the same time.

Any conflicting evidence should be reviewed in such a manner that any discrepancies between different sources may be coherently explained.

A written conclusion should be drawn which pulls together all the previous elements. (2)

Question 3. 

I believe for research to be of value it needs to be referenced in such a way that anyone can confirm what I have found and build a conclusion. 
If any piece of information is later found to contradict what I have concluded then further analysis of all the evidence will be possible. 
Without proper sources and reasoning, research does not stand up to review and incorrect conclusions may be perpetuated by other researchers.


Question 4. 

The conclusion is the result of an analysis of all the gathered information. If there is sufficient evidence then the conclusion is a proof. 
If there is insufficient evidence or a conflict cannot be resolved then further research is required until a conclusion is possible. 
Without fulfilling all the criteria in question 2 any conclusion is not valid.


Question 5. 
What questions do you need to answer?
Assess what you need to discover before you start any research.


1 Online Oxford Dictionary http://oxforddictionaries.com/definition/english/genealogy accessed 19th June 2013.
2 The Genealogical Proof Standard http://www.bcgcertification.org/resources/standard.html accessed 19th June 2013.

Sunday, 16 February 2014

The Occupations of Our Ancestors

 - Should we consider exactly how we view them with 21st century eyes.

This blog post was triggered by a comment Jill Ball made on Google+ about a fellow cruiser’s comment about social media.
She said that a blog post http://butmostlyaboutcats.blogspot.com.au/2014/02/when-new-technologies-emerge.html had reminded her of this comment. This post deals with the reactions of individuals to changes.
Although we all have to cope with changes in our lives many of us adapt to change better than others and some of us actually relish change as a challenge.

I am not going to discuss the management of change so much as how change has influenced our lives and those of our ancestors.

My son has grown up in a world where technology particularly computers are commonplace. Whilst this may not be the norm everywhere most “westernised” and many asian countries are similar. Trying to explain to his generation that we did not have such technology when we were growing up can be difficult. If so much has changed in one generation how can we ever truly put ourselves in the shoes of our ancestors and think and feel as they might have done. To be able to visualize their lives we need to know exactly how they lived and what affected their lives.

Museums, reenactments and newspapers can all play a part in piecing together their story, but can we ever truly see things as they would. Were they the ones who took the changes on board or did they dig their heels in and try to resist change. After all changes are not always for the better.

My husband and I both have family members who worked with animals such as horses, they would have been important in a society without automotive transport (cars, trains). Many of the trades associated with horses are dying out or practically non existent today. How can we even picture such a society ?

Today we worry about pollution from various sources contributing to “Global Warming” but would knowing about such possibilities have made any difference to our ancestors, many of whom would have been unable to read or write and would have been struggling to survive.

Knowing what someone did can be important when fleshing out our family histories, but understanding how that impacted on their standing in the community could be more important in explaining how they were and why they did what they did. If we truly wish to understand what makes us who we are today we need to study the history of the village, town and even the county or country.

However you carry out your research do not forget the Friends, Acquaintances and Neighbours.
In other words look out for the FAN club.